The bicarbonate, ________________ and ________________ buffer systems are the three major chemical buffer systems of the body.
The hormone called ____________ increases sodium re-absorption from the kidney tubules.
Indicate the names of the two major fluid compartments of the body.
extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid
One way electrolytes are lost from the body is in _________.
Blood plasma and tissue fluid normally has a pH from __________ to ___________.
The chemical class called ________________________ function to increase urine output.
Indicate the two physiological buffer systems.
respiratory system, renal system
The total solute concentration of a body fluid is called its __________________.
When lymph flow is blocked by a tumor, fluid cannot drain away. The resulting condition is called ____________.
TRUE or FALSE: The primary regulator of water intake is thirst.
List two sources of water intake.
ingestion , cellular metabolism
IMPORTANT: A chemical that combines with excess acids or bases is called a ____________.
The _______________ fluid compartment includes all of the fluid found within the cells of the body.
The area of the brain called the ____________________ is the site of osmoreceptors, providing the sensation of thirst.
Indicate the mechanisms that are part of the body’s first line of defense against pH shifts.
bicarbonate buffer, protein buffer, phosphate buffer
The clinical condition in which the blood pH level is at 7.34 or lower is defined as _______________.
Indicate three major cations that are required for nerve conduction, muscle contraction, and maintenance of the cell membrane potential.
The primary method of regulating water loss is by changing the volume of _________ that is produced.
As water loss occurs in the body, what happens to the osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluid?
osmotic pressure of ECF increases
Indicate two mechanisms employed to maintain water and electrolyte balance.
replace lost water and electrolytes, excrete any excess water and electrolytes
blood lymphatic vessels, hypoproteinmia
The condition called ______________ is due to an acid-base imbalance in which the arterial blood pH is higher than 7.45.
Many disorders cause excess tissue fluid to accumulate. Excessive tissue fluid is called _________.
Consuming too much water (water intoxication) dilutes the sodium in the blood, leading to a condition called __________________.
What change in water balance results in an increase in the osmotic pressure in extracellular fluid?
output exceeds intake (water loss)
What are three conditions associated with thirst?
loss of water by the body, increased blood osmolarity, increased osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid
A(n) __________________________________ in water content of extracellular fluid leads to ___________________________ osmolarity of blood and the sensation of thirst.
The _____________________ of a body fluid is defined as the concentration of dissolved particles in the fluid.
The fluid in the ______________________ fluid compartment has high concentrations of sodium, chloride, and calcium.
List the four fluids that are part of the extracellular fluid compartment.
plasma, lymph, transcellular fluid, interstitial fluid
Decreased plasma protein production by the liver results in _______________________.
Hyponatremia is a condition in which there is too little ___________________ in the blood.
Low carbon dioxide levels in body fluids results in a(n) ________________ in pH, which will then lead to a(n) ________________ in breathing rate.
The respiratory system controls pH by controlling ___________________ and _____________________ levels.
TRUE or FALSE: Some regulation of the hydrogen ion concentration in body fluids is carried out by the respiratory center.
true, the respiratory center regulates pH by controlling the rate and depth of breathing
Rank the fluid compartments from highest to lowest in protein content.
intracellular fluid, plasma, interstitial fluid
TRUE or FALSE: Even small changes in the quantities of hydrogen ions in body fluids can be devastating.
The two major fluid compartments of the body are the _____________________fluid compartment and the ________________ fluid compartment.
Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions are known as ______________.
What is an important function of electrolytes in the extracellular fluid?
they control movement of the water between fluid compartments
Changes in kidney function alter water _______________, while the thirst center regulates water _________________.
Acids that ionize less completely and therefore release fewer hydrogen ions are called _________ acids.
When extracellular sodium concentrations change, water moves across cell membranes by the process of _________________.
By regulating ____________________, the body regulates electrolyte input.
Even slight changes in ________________ or ______________ ion concentration can effect enzyme action.
The two major types of alkalosis are ______________ alkalosis and _______________ alkalosis.
When does electrolyte balance occur?
when the amount of electrolytes gained equals the amount lost
Many patients with an excess of body fluid are prescribed a diuretic, which causes ____________________________.
Movement of water and electrolytes between fluid compartments is due to two factors: _________________ and _________________ pressure.
substance that removes hydrogen ions from solution
What is the largest of fluid intake?
An acid-base buffer stabilizes pH by __________________ or _______________ as needed.
binding excess H+ or releasing H+
Oxidation of phosphorus-containing compounds such as nucleic acids would produce _________________ acid.
Since potassium is important in the repolarization phase of an electrical signal, what symptoms would you expect to see with hypokalemia?
low potassium concentration in the blood
The increase in the use of sunscreens has the unintended consequence of decreasing vitamin D production. One symptom of vitamin D deficiency is ___________________________.
higher than normal levels of potassium in the blood
When the pH of body fluids is low, kidney tubular cells make ammonia, which acts as a weak base to bind with ___________________ ions.
The primary stimulus to the respiratory centers in the brain are increasing levels of ______________ in the cerebrospinal fluid.
When the renal tubules actively re-absorb sodium, the anion _______________ follows passively.
Hyponatremia is a condition in which there is too little ________________ in the blood.
Ten percent of total water intake comes from ____________________.
The term ___________________ refers to the “actions” taken by the various buffering systems to correct a pH change.
Which buffering system responds most rapidly?
fluid accumulation in the abdomen
Acidic ketone bodies resulting from the incomplete oxidation of fatty acids will __________________ hydrogen ion concentration in the body.
Phosphoric acid is a byproduct of the breakdown of what compound?
When electrolytes are depleted, one would crave ______________.
Accidental surgical removal of the parathyroid glands during a thyroidectomy (removal of the thyroid gland) would cause _____________________.
Why are the elderly more susceptible to dehydration than younger adults?
their thirst mechanisms are less sensitive
The term perspiration includes what route of water loss?
The compound called _______________ acid is a byproduct of the oxidation of sulfur-containing amino acids.
The percent of total water intake that is from water of metabolism is ________%.
By what route does MOST water loss (output) occur?
An increase in cerebrospinal fluid levels of what chemical will stimulate the respiratory center of the brain?
The __________________ buffer system consists of the compound HPO4^-2 and H2PO4.
Consuming too much water (water intoxication) dilutes the sodium in the blood, leading to a condition called ____________________________.
Evaporation of water from the skin (NOT via sweat secretions) is classified as ______________ perspiration.
List three examples of transcellular fluids.
synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, serous fluid in the body cavities
Excess tissue fluid in the abdomen causes swelling and pain. This abdominal swelling due to fluid accumulation is called _______________.
Why are infants more susceptible to dehydration than adults?
their kidneys are less efficient at conserving water
The activity of the hormone calcitonin results in a(n) ______________ in calcium levels.
Liver disease often results in a decrease in plasma protein concentration. The name for a low plasma protein level is _________________________________.
Inhibiting ADH release causes ________________ water re-absorption and _________________urine output.
Indicate two possible causes of hypokalemia.
diuretic drugs that increase potassium excretion, increased aldosterone secretion
One mole of sodium chloride yields ____________ osmole of dissolved particles.
In peripheral tissues, glucose metabolism produces carbon dioxide as a waste product, which then in turn causes an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions. These hydrogen ions are buffered by _________________, a protein in red blood cells that is a part of the protein buffer system.
The condition called __________________________ occurs when the body eliminates more water than it takes in.
When sodium ions are actively reabsorbed in the renal tubules, _______________ ions are electrically attracted to them and follow passively.
Drowsiness and disorientation due to depression of CNS function, as well as breathing difficulty and cyanosis, are symptoms of __________________.
Percentages of water by weight differ between males and females mainly because their bodies are composed of different amounts of __________ tissue.
What force causes interstitial fluid to enter the lymphatic capillaries?
hydrostatic pressure of interstitial fluid
Some diuretic drugs increase the excretion of potassium in the kidneys, which causes ___________________.
A condition in which the body temperature regulation fails is called ____________________. The body temperature increases above safe levels and organs start to fail.
An increase in the rate and depth of breathing will cause excretion of _________ carbon dioxide and therefore will _________________ hydrogen ion levels of body fluids.
Indicate two actions of the hormone calcitonin.
increases urinary excretion of calcium, stimulates bone formation
Hyperventilation leads to respiratory _________________.
Plasma that is _____________ concentrated than normal causes osmoreceptors to lose water and to signal the posterior pituitary gland to secrete ADH.
Drinking water decreases plasma osmolarity and ________________ the secretion of ADH.
In the extracellular fluid, 90% of the cations are ______________ ions
The loss of bicarbonate ions as a result of prolonged diarrhea may lead to ____________________.
Name three factors that may lead to metabolic acidosis.
kidneys fail to excrete hydrogen ions, prolonged diarrhea with loss of intestinal secretions,excess production of ketones in diabetes mellitus
What are two symptoms of acidosis?
depression of the nervous system, cyanosis
Hyperkalemia causes which two symptoms?
skeletal muscle paralysis, cardiac disturbances
Where is the bicarbonate buffer system functional in maintaining acid/base balance?
Instead of having the same composition throughout the body, fluids are found in regions called _____________, each of which may have a different composition.
Most changes in urine volume are linked to varying levels of the hormone called _________.
Fluid moves from the interstitial fluid into lymphatic capillaries due to ________________ pressure of the interstitial fluid.
Indicate two proteins that can act as buffers as part of the protein buffer system.
What two things can cause hypercalcemia?
Indicate two symptoms associated with uncompensated alkalosis.
tingling in nerves, light headedness
A decrease in sodium ion concentration in the blood will _________________ the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands.
Increased urine output occurs with _________________ ADH release.
decreased, ADH inhibits urine output
How does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) influence regulation of water output?
ADH changes the permeability of renal tubules to water
Indicate two symptoms of heatstroke.
increased heart rate, headache and dizziness
Various diseases such as cancer and hyperparathyroidism cause increased bone resorption and the subsequent imbalance called ______________________.
In the bicarbonate buffer system, _________________ can release hydrogen ions, lowering pH. To increase pH, __________________ can bind hydrogen ions, removing them from the solution.
carbonic acid; bicarbonate ions
Which situation results in a reduced urine output?
When might a temporary reduction in thirst occur?
the stomach wall distends from water intake even before the water is absorbed into the blood.
Indicate two symptoms of hypocalcemia.
difficulty breathing, cardiac arrhythmias
Within the amino acids of protein molecules, the __________________ groups function as acids, whereas the _______________ groups function as bases.
List four factors that can lead to hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis.
aspirin poisoning, anxiety, fever, being at high altitude
The hydrostatic pressure that causes fluid to leave plasma at the arteriole end of capillaries is due to ________________.
Renal diseases can lead to a decrease in excretion of potassium by the kidneys, as can insufficient secretion of aldosterone. Both of these conditions can cause the ion imbalance called ___________________.
When carbon dioxide levels in the blood increase, ________________ acid production increases. This leads to an increase in hydrogen ion concentration and consequently a(n) _______________ in pH.
Inhibiting ADH release causes ____________ water reabsorption and ___________________ urine output.
What is the largest fluid compartment, containing about two-thirds of the body fluid?
Sodium is the most abundant cation in the _________________ fluid.
The respiratory center in the brainstem will increase the breathing rate to eliminate excess carbon dioxide in order to _______________ the pH of body fluids.
Two metabolic sources of hydrogen ions are _______________ and __________________.
anaerobic respiration of glucose; aerobic respiration of glucose
indicate two effects of aldosterone on the renal tubules.
increase in potassium secretion, increase in sodium reabsorption
What chemical buffer system is important for regulating hydrogen ion concentration of intracellular fluid and of tubular fluid and urine?
Body fluids are located within regions called ________________________, each with a potentially different composition.
Drinking water decreases plasma osmolarity and ____________ the secretion of ADH.
What causes the net inward force that shifts fluid from interstitial spaces into capillaries?
What is the “goal” of water movement across membranes in response to changes in sodium concentrations?
to have equal water and electrolyte concentrations inside and outside of cells
When chemical reactions in the body produce acids that accumulate in body fluids, the condition called ________________ acidosis occurs.
Low blood levels of ________________ stimulate the release of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands.
When plasma osmolarity increases, osmoreceptors of the hypothalamus ___________ water. This change triggers nerve impulses that result in the release of ADH.
When the body loses too much water, whether through excess vomiting or increased urination, a condition called _____________________ results.
One component of the bicarbonate buffer system is ______________ acid, which acts as a weak acid.
A decrease in sodium ion concentration in the blood will ___________________ the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands.
The ________________________ buffer system is present in both extracellular and intracellular body fluids.
The ___________________ are able to rid the body of hydrogen ions, helping in the regulation of pH.
List two sources of electrolytes for the body.
food and drink, metabolic reactions
INCREASED extracellular sodium causes cells to _____________. Conversely, DECREASED extracellular sodium causes cells to ______________. These changes are due to osmotic movement of water.
How does alcohol consumption lead to an increase urine output?
by inhibiting the release of ADH
Receptors called _____________________ detect changes in solute concentrations of extracellular fluid.
Which type of chemical group within the amino acids of a protein can function as acids, releasing hydrogen ions when necessary?
The adrenal cortex responds to increased levels of potassium by secreting ___________________________.
The condition in which blood calcium levels are higher than normal is called ___________________.
The hormones ADH causes a(n) _____________________ in the permeability to water of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidneys.
Most of the hydrogen ions in body fluids are products of _____________________.
What enzyme is present in red blood cells and functions to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid?
The elimination of __________________ and ___________________ are the primary tasks of mechanisms responsible for maintaining acid-base balance.
hydrogen ions and metabolic acids
TRUE or FALSE: Sodium and potassium are the only ions that are important in cellular functions.
Name three sources of water loss.
water in sweat, water in urine, water in expired air
In addition to chemical buffers, acid-base balance is maintained by the excretion of carbon dioxide by the ________________ system and excretion of hydrogen ions by the _________________ system.
Since __________________ pressure of body fluids is ordinarily stable, it is typically a change in the ___________ pressure of intracellular or extracellular fluid that causes net movement of the fluids.
Indicate nine things that include the electrolytes of greatest importance to cellular functions.
phosphate, bicarbonate, hydrogen, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, sodium, potassium, calcium
Indicate three factors that might influence the rate of water loss from the body.
relative humidity, physical exercise, temperature
A(n) _____________ helps minimize pH changes, typically by converting a strong acid or strong base to a weak one.
The _____________________ fluid compartment includes all of the fluid found within the cells of the body.
The body can acquire sufficient electrolytes by responding to _____________ and thirst.
Substances that combine with hydrogen ions are called ____________.
A ________________ base releases more hydroxide ions than a ______________ base.
Name three effects of parathyroid hormone.
increased calcium reabsorption from kidneys, stimulation of osteoclasts, increased calcium absorption from food
Excessive loss of carbon dioxide and subsequent loss of carbonic acid leads to _____________ alkalosis, whereas excessive loss of hydrogen ions leads to _____________ alkalosis.
Indicate three factors that may lead to metabolic acidosis.
kidney disease, with an inability to excrete metabolic acids, production of ketone bodies in diabetes mellitus, prolonged diarrhea, with loss of intestinal content
What term describes all of the water and electrolytes enclosed within the cells of the body?
Indicate two effects of aldosterone on the renal tubules.
increase in sodium reabsorption, increase in potassium secretion
List three symptoms of dehydration.
loss of body weight, decreased sweating, decreased urination
Control of urine volume regulates _________________.
What is the importance of osmotic pressure and hydrostatic pressure in body fluid regulation?
they contribute to movement between fluid compartments
An inflammation reaction involves the release of a chemical called ______________ from damaged cells. This chemical causes capillaries to become leaky, resulting in edema.
Indicate the three major chemical buffer systems in the body.
phosphate buffer system, protein buffer system, bicarbonate buffer system
The loss of carbon dioxide, hydrogen ions, and carbonic acid that causes respiratory alkalosis develops from ________________________.
The cations sodium and __________________ are important in maintaining the resting membrane potential of muscle and nervous cells.
List three mechanisms used to regulate the pH levels in body fluids.
respiratory changes, renal changes, chemical buffer systems
A patient with a brain stem injury has a decreased respiration rate and depth. The resulting acidosis is caused by ______________________.
a decreased elimination of carbon dioxide
List three electrolytes that are have high concentration levels in extracellular fluid.
sodium, chloride, bicarbonate ions
Hypoproteinemia decreases the osmotic pressure of blood plasma, __________________ the movement of interstitial fluid into the venous end of the capillary, causing edema.
Indicate three conditions associated with thirst.
loss of water by the body, increased blood osmolarity, increased osmotic pressure of extracellular fluid
state, condition, or process of
Indicate three factors that can lead to respiratory acidosis.
obstruction of airways, injury to respiratory centers, reducing rate and depth of breathing, any condition that decreases gas exchange
a product of oxidation of specific amino acids
product of hydrolysis of nucleic acids
product of carbon dioxide (from aerobic metabolism) interacting with water
product of incomplete oxidation of fatty acids
product of anaerobic metabolism
Equal quantities of base “A” and base “B” are added to separate containers that each hold an acid with pH 4. In A’s container, the pH raises to 5. In B’s container, the pH raises to 7. Which base is STRONGER?